The Biggest Myth in Speedrunning History

LunaticJ
6 Mar 202419:37

Summary

TLDRThis script delves into the widely circulated myth surrounding a mysterious upwarp glitch in a 2013 Super Mario 64 speedrun, which was initially theorized to be caused by a cosmic ray flipping a bit in the game's memory. It examines the origins of this cosmic ray theory, the subsequent $1,000 bounty offered for replicating the glitch, and the skepticism from experts who provided more plausible explanations, such as hardware malfunctions or memory errors. The script ultimately exposes how poor gaming journalism and the spread of misinformation propelled this unsubstantiated cosmic ray theory into a viral phenomenon, frustrating the speedrunning community who recognized it as an unfounded myth.

Takeaways

  • 😬 Misinformation about a cosmic ray causing an upwarp glitch in a Super Mario 64 speedrun has spread widely online, despite lack of evidence.
  • 🤔 The upwarp glitch in question occurred during a 2013 speedrun race and involved Mario warping straight up through a ceiling unexpectedly.
  • 🕵️ Investigations by speedrunners and experts could not replicate the exact upwarp glitch or definitively confirm the cause.
  • ⚡ The leading hypothesis was a bit flip in memory, possibly due to hardware issues like a faulty cartridge or console, rather than a cosmic ray.
  • 📰 A 2020 article from The Gamer claimed the upwarp was confirmed to be caused by a cosmic ray, sparking widespread misinformation.
  • 🌐 The cosmic ray myth spread rapidly across the internet, social media, and pop culture outlets, fueled by inaccurate reporting.
  • 😠 The speedrunning community has been frustrated by the persistence of this myth and the spread of misinformation surrounding the unsolved glitch.
  • 🔍 Similar unexplained glitches and bit flips have occurred, likely due to hardware issues, further debunking the cosmic ray theory.
  • 📚 Extensive research and documentation by the speedrunning community has failed to find evidence supporting the cosmic ray claim.
  • ❓ The true cause of the upwarp glitch remains a mystery, but cosmic rays are considered an unlikely explanation by experts.

Q & A

  • What is the 'Cosmic Ray Theory' in the context of speedrunning?

    -The 'Cosmic Ray Theory' refers to the idea that a cosmic ray from outer space caused a spontaneous upward warp ('upwarp') that saved time in a Super Mario 64 speedrun. This theory emerged as an explanation for an anomalous upwarp that occurred during a speedrun race between DOTA teabag and midboss in 2013.

  • Why is the Cosmic Ray Theory considered a myth among the speedrunning community?

    -The speedrunning community, particularly the Super Mario 64 experts, consider the Cosmic Ray Theory to be a myth because there is no concrete evidence to support it. Several more plausible explanations, such as hardware malfunctions or memory errors, have been proposed and investigated, making the cosmic ray explanation highly unlikely.

  • How did the Cosmic Ray Theory gain widespread attention and acceptance?

    -The Cosmic Ray Theory gained widespread attention and acceptance due to a combination of factors, including an article published on The Gamer website that confidently claimed the upwarp was caused by a cosmic ray, a viral tweet spreading the article's claim, and coverage from popular media outlets and YouTubers like Veritasium, who cited the same flawed sources.

  • What alternative explanations have been proposed for the anomalous upwarp?

    -Some alternative explanations proposed by the speedrunning community include faulty cartridge connections, hardware malfunctions, memory errors, or other hardware-related issues. Specific examples like cartridge tilts, cart slaps, and bit flips caused by electromagnetic interference have been investigated and found to be more plausible causes.

  • Why is the Cosmic Ray Theory considered a myth that continues to annoy speedrunners?

    -The Cosmic Ray Theory is considered a myth that continues to annoy speedrunners because it has been widely spread and accepted as fact, despite the lack of evidence and the availability of more plausible explanations. Memes and misinformation about the theory keep resurfacing, perpetuating the myth and frustrating the speedrunning community.

  • What role did the gamer article play in the spread of the Cosmic Ray Theory?

    -The article published on The Gamer website titled "How an ionizing particle from outer space helped a Mario speedrunner save time" played a significant role in the spread of the Cosmic Ray Theory. The article confidently claimed that the upwarp was caused by a cosmic ray, despite the theory being considered unlikely by the speedrunning community.

  • How did the speedrunning community attempt to investigate and replicate the anomalous upwarp?

    -The speedrunning community, particularly experts like pannenkoek2012 and the Mario 64 tasking community, attempted to investigate and replicate the upwarp by analyzing DOTA teabag's hardware, testing bit flips, and offering a bounty for anyone who could recreate the upwarp in an emulator. However, their efforts were unable to definitively solve the mystery.

  • What is the significance of the dup doome incident in relation to the Cosmic Ray Theory?

    -The dup doome incident, where he experienced graphical glitches and a moving bar warp in Tick Tock Clock, provided evidence that bit flips and hardware errors were more likely causes of such anomalies than cosmic rays. The community was able to recreate some of dup doome's glitches by flipping specific bits, further discrediting the cosmic ray explanation.

  • How did the Veritasium video contribute to the spread of the Cosmic Ray Theory?

    -The Veritasium video titled "The Universe is Hostile to Computers" briefly covered the Tick Tock Clock upwarp and cited the flawed gamer article and pannenkoek2012's proof of concept video as evidence that the upwarp was caused by a cosmic ray. Given Veritasium's popularity and credibility as an educational channel, this segment helped further spread the myth.

  • Why is the ian1 1243 down warp incident considered evidence against the Cosmic Ray Theory?

    -The down warp experienced by speedrunner ian1 1243 in Bowser in the Fire Sea is considered evidence against the Cosmic Ray Theory because the displacement of Mario was estimated to be around 900 units, which does not align with the expected behavior of a bit flip caused by a cosmic ray. Bit flips typically result in displacements that are clean powers of two, making a bit flip an unlikely cause for ian1 1243's down warp.

Outlines

00:00

📽️ The Mysterious TTC Upwarp in Super Mario 64 Speedrunning

This paragraph introduces the topic of a mysterious upwarp (an unexpected vertical teleportation) that occurred during a Super Mario 64 speedrun race in the Tick Tock Clock level on September 21, 2013. It describes how the runner, DotaTeabag, experienced Mario warping straight up through the ceiling unexpectedly, an anomaly that was saved as a highlight but did not gain much attention at first. Nearly two years later, in 2015, veteran speedrunner Puncayshun noticed the clip and was intrigued by the unusual upwarp, as it did not seem to match any previously known upwarp glitches. Seeking answers, he sent the clip to pannenkoek2012, who is known for the A Button Challenge project, with the hope that if the upwarp could be replicated and understood, it could potentially be used as a new trick to save A presses.

05:01

🔍 Investigating the TTC Upwarp and the Cosmic Ray Theory

This paragraph discusses the initial theories and investigations into the cause of the TTC upwarp. After pannenkoek2012 offered a $1,000 bounty for anyone who could recreate the upwarp, YouTube commenters theorized that a bit flip (a single bit changing state in the game's memory) may have caused the upwarp, possibly due to a cosmic ray. Pannenkoek2012 tested the bit flip hypothesis by modifying Mario's height value, which resulted in a visually similar but not identical upwarp. While the bit flip theory became the leading hypothesis at the time, it was acknowledged that assuming a cosmic ray as the cause was a bit of a leap in logic. The paragraph also mentions DotaTeabag's comment suggesting that his faulty cartridge and console may have been a factor, hinting at potential hardware issues.

10:02

💻 Hardware Issues and Alternate Explanations

This paragraph explores alternative explanations for the TTC upwarp beyond the cosmic ray theory. It discusses how hardware issues, such as faulty cartridge connections or console malfunctions, could lead to anomalies and glitches in Super Mario 64. Examples are provided, including a Japanese speedrunner experiencing a level warp due to hitting their console, and another speedrunner encountering a glitchy sky effect likely caused by loose cartridge connections. The paragraph also mentions that while cart tilts and slaps themselves do not typically cause upwarps or bit flips, they could potentially contribute to memory errors or other hardware-related issues. The possibility that the TTC upwarp may not have involved a bit flip at all is raised, considering the condition of DotaTeabag's cartridge and console, as well as the opinions of experts who found the cosmic ray theory unlikely.

15:03

🌐 The Spread of Misinformation and the Cosmic Ray Myth

This paragraph delves into how the cosmic ray theory for the TTC upwarp gained widespread attention and became a persistent myth, despite being considered unlikely by experts. It traces the origin of the misinformation to a 2020 article on The Gamer website that confidently claimed, without evidence, that the upwarp was "100% confirmed" to be caused by a cosmic ray. This claim then spread across social media, news articles, and even a popular educational YouTube channel, perpetuating the myth as if it were a proven fact. The paragraph highlights the frustration felt by members of the speedrunning community as they watched the misinformation spread, with memes and articles continuing to propagate the cosmic ray theory as the accepted explanation for the TTC upwarp, despite the actual cause remaining unsolved.

Mindmap

Keywords

💡Speedrunning

Speedrunning is the act of completing a video game as quickly as possible, often utilizing glitches and advanced techniques to bypass intended gameplay and shave off time. In the context of this video, speedrunning is a core aspect, as it discusses an anomaly that occurred during a Super Mario 64 speedrun race, and how this anomaly became a widespread myth within the speedrunning community.

💡Glitch

A glitch refers to an unexpected and unintended behavior in a video game, often caused by programming errors or exploits. The video script discusses various glitches in Super Mario 64, such as the infamous 'upwarp' glitch, where Mario warps to unintended locations. The myth surrounding the 'TTC upwarp' is a central focus of the video, with debates on whether it was caused by a glitch or other factors.

💡Tool-Assisted Speedrun (TAS)

A Tool-Assisted Speedrun (TAS) is a speedrun where the player uses external tools or software to achieve frame-perfect input and manipulate the game beyond human capabilities. The video mentions pannenkoek2012, a well-known TASser known for the 'A Button Challenge' in Super Mario 64, which aims to collect all 120 stars with as few 'A' button presses as possible. TAS runs are often used to discover and document new glitches and techniques.

💡Bit Flip

A bit flip is a phenomenon where a single binary digit (bit) in a computer's memory or data storage is unexpectedly flipped from 0 to 1 or vice versa. The video explores the theory that the 'TTC upwarp' anomaly was caused by a bit flip, potentially due to cosmic radiation. However, this theory is largely debunked, as the experts in the community provide more plausible explanations related to hardware issues.

💡Cosmic Rays

Cosmic rays are high-energy particles from outer space that can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and potentially cause bit flips in electronic devices. The video discusses the widespread myth that a cosmic ray caused the 'TTC upwarp' glitch during a Super Mario 64 speedrun. While this theory was initially proposed, the video ultimately debunks it as an unlikely explanation based on expert analysis and more plausible hardware-related causes.

💡Bounty

A bounty is a reward offered for a specific achievement or task. In the context of the video, pannenkoek2012 offered an $11,000 bounty to anyone who could recreate the 'TTC upwarp' glitch in an emulator and provide the necessary input data. The bounty was an attempt to uncover the underlying cause of the anomaly, but it ultimately remained unsolved.

💡Cartridge

A cartridge is a removable storage device used in older video game consoles, such as the Nintendo 64. The video discusses the possibility that a faulty or loosely connected cartridge could have caused the 'TTC upwarp' anomaly, as well as other glitches and errors documented in the community. Hardware issues like cartridge connections are considered more plausible explanations than cosmic rays.

💡Single Event Upset (SEU)

A Single Event Upset (SEU) is a type of error caused by ionizing radiation, such as cosmic rays, flipping bits in a computer's memory or logic. The video mentions SEUs as a potential cause for the 'TTC upwarp,' but ultimately dismisses the cosmic ray theory as an unlikely explanation due to the rarity of visually observable SEUs and the presence of more plausible hardware-related causes.

💡Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) refers to the disruption of electronic devices caused by electromagnetic radiation from external sources. The video briefly considers EMI, such as power surges, as a potential cause for bit flips or glitches in Super Mario 64 speedruns. However, attempts to recreate the 'TTC upwarp' using EMI were unsuccessful, further dismissing this as a likely explanation.

💡Misinformation

Misinformation refers to false or inaccurate information that is spread, regardless of intent. The video highlights how misinformation about the 'TTC upwarp' being caused by cosmic rays spread rapidly across the internet due to inaccurate reporting and viral memes. Despite the speedrunning community's efforts to debunk this myth, it persists as a widespread belief among casual audiences unfamiliar with the factual details.

Highlights

Misinformation and myths are common in the speedrunning community, such as the belief that glitches are cheating, that 'speedrun' is two words, and a particularly widespread myth about a cosmic ray causing an upwarp in a Super Mario 64 speedrun.

In September 2013, during a 70-star speedrun race between DOTA teabag and midboss, a strange upwarp occurred where Mario warped straight up past the ceiling in the Tick Tock Clock level, skipping a section.

In 2015, veteran speedrunner Kimanwas intrigued by the upwarp clip and sought explanations, leading to a $1,000 bounty from pannenkoek2012 for anyone who could recreate the upwarp.

One theory proposed that a bit flip in the game's memory caused the upwarp, which pannenkoek2012 tested by modifying Mario's height value, resulting in a visually similar but not exact upwarp.

YouTube commenters hypothesized that a cosmic ray could have caused a bit flip, leading to the upwarp, but this theory was considered outlandish and unlikely by experts.

In 2018, DOTA teabag commented that his cartridge and console were faulty, suggesting hardware issues as a more plausible cause for the upwarp.

Cartridge tilts, slaps, and loose connections have been known to cause glitches and warps in other instances, providing evidence for hardware-related issues being the likely cause.

In 2020, an article from The Gamer falsely claimed the cosmic ray theory as a confirmed fact, leading to the spread of misinformation across the internet and news articles.

The cosmic ray theory gained further traction after being featured in a popular Veritasium video, despite experts refuting the theory and lacking definitive evidence.

Members of the Mario 64 speedrunning community are annoyed by the persistent spread of the cosmic ray myth, as the true cause behind the upwarp remains unsolved.

Bit flips and hardware errors have been documented as more plausible causes for similar glitches and warps, including a moving bar warp experienced by speedrunner dup_doome.

A recent unexplained downwarp experienced by speedrunner ian11243 is unlikely to have been caused by a bit flip due to the displacement distance not aligning with powers of two.

Electromagnetic interference or power surges are suggested as potential alternative causes for bit flips, but attempts to recreate the upwarp through interference were unsuccessful.

The video highlights the importance of accurate reporting and fact-checking in gaming journalism to prevent the spread of misinformation and myths.

The Super Mario 64 speedrunning community's extensive documentation and research efforts are commended for their work in investigating and understanding the unsolved upwarp glitch.

Transcripts

00:00

misinformation is unfortunately common

00:02

whenever people talk about speedrunning

00:05

myths such as glitches are cheating task

00:07

spot is a machine learning Ai and

00:10

speedrun being two words instead of one

00:13

however one particular speedr running

00:16

myth stands Above the Rest in terms of

00:18

how widespread it is how widely accepted

00:20

it is among the Casual audience and how

00:23

much it continues to annoy speedrunners

00:25

and tasers alike because it probably

00:29

didn't even happen the myth that a

00:32

cosmic ray from outer space caused a

00:35

spontaneous upw warp that saved time in

00:37

a Super Mario 64 speedrun now you've

00:41

probably heard about this incident

00:43

either from a YouTube video or even a

00:45

meme posted on social media but in case

00:47

you have no idea what I'm talking about

00:50

boy do I have the story for you and if

00:54

you end up enjoying this video don't

00:55

forget to subscribe if you like

00:57

speedrunning content thank you 10 years

01:01

ago on September 21st 2013 a 70 star

01:05

speedrun race between two Runners DOTA

01:08

teabag and midboss took place the race

01:11

itself wasn't particularly high-profile

01:13

or notable but 54 minutes into the race

01:17

something very strange happened DOTA

01:20

teabag was in the middle of collecting

01:22

red coins and ticktock clock when

01:26

suddenly what the what the invisible

01:30

wall what Mario warped straight up past

01:33

the graded ceiling above him before

01:36

falling on top skipping to climb up the

01:39

platforms this anomaly was saved as a

01:41

highlight on Tag's twitch Channel but

01:44

wouldn't Garner much attention quite yet

01:47

nearly 2 years later in 2015 veteran

01:50

Mario 64 speedrunner kiman would stumble

01:54

upon the DOTA teabag upwarp clip and was

01:56

intrigued upw warps under different

01:59

circumstances es had already been a well

02:01

documented glitch where if Mario jumps

02:04

into the very edge of a ceiling while

02:06

also underneath a higher adjacent

02:08

hangable ceiling Mario will snap to the

02:11

higher hangable ceiling as long as a is

02:13

still being held you can even see speed

02:15

Runners performed this type of upw warp

02:17

in Bowser and the fire sea to save time

02:20

but this upw warp was different there

02:22

were no hangable ceilings in tick tock

02:25

clock and Mario didn't jump into the

02:28

edge of a ceiling in fact he wasn't

02:30

initiating a jump at all he was Landing

02:33

from a previous one clearly this was not

02:37

like any previously known upw warp

02:40

curious for answers behind the anomaly

02:42

he sent the clip to pan and coic 2012 a

02:45

Tasser most well known for the a button

02:47

challenge a massive tool assisted

02:50

project which aims to collect all 120

02:52

stars in Mario 64 with as few a presses

02:56

as possible naturally this caught Pano

02:59

attention as again teabag ascended as he

03:02

was Landing from a jump rather than

03:05

initiating one this meant that if this

03:08

new type of upw warp could be replicated

03:10

and properly understood it could

03:12

potentially be a new trick used to save

03:14

more a presses however neither pan and

03:17

coak or anyone else had any luck

03:20

replicating it still seeking answers on

03:23

August 4th 2015 pan and coak made a

03:26

YouTube video about the mysterious TTC

03:28

upwarp off offering a

03:31

$11,000 bounty to anyone who was able to

03:33

recreate it in the mopin 64 emulator and

03:37

send Pan and coic the m64 file which

03:40

contains the controller input data that

03:41

could be played back in mopin not long

03:44

after pan and coak published The Bounty

03:46

announcement people in the YouTube

03:48

comment section would begin to theorize

03:50

what may have caused the sudden upwarp

03:52

one theory that stood out was that a bit

03:54

flip occurred in the game's memory that

03:56

affected Mario's height which might

03:59

explain such a drastic warp pan and coak

04:02

would then test this hypothesis in a

04:03

video uploaded to his secondary channel

04:05

on August 6 in this video he tasked

04:09

Tag's movement up until the upw warp

04:11

where he then tested two different

04:13

scenarios the first was warping Mario

04:16

straight to the ceiling which didn't

04:18

seem to quite match the original clip

04:20

the second scenario instead modified the

04:23

first bite representing Mario's height

04:26

from C5 to C4 these are are hexadecimal

04:30

bytes for 197 and 196 respectively and

04:34

when this bite is written in binary you

04:37

can flip the first bit to change it from

04:40

197 to

04:43

196 when pan and coak flipped this bit

04:45

from 1 to zero it resulted in an upw

04:49

warp that was visually similar to the

04:51

DOTA teag clip although the comparison

04:54

between the bit flip and the original

04:56

clip was not a one toone match visually

04:59

this would become the leading hypothesis

05:01

for the TTC upw warp for the time being

05:04

the question was if there was a bit flit

05:07

what caused it and could it be

05:11

replicated the mysterious circumstances

05:13

surrounding the upwarp LED YouTube

05:15

commenters to hypothesize some

05:18

interesting theories like I don't know

05:21

cosmic rays yeah this is where it all

05:24

came from the theory goes that when

05:27

cosmic rays reaches the Earth's

05:29

atmosphere spere and they break apart

05:30

into smaller ionized particles the

05:33

radiation of the particle has the

05:35

capability to flip a bit in a computer's

05:38

memory which may result in a glitch

05:40

known as a single event upset this

05:43

theory is out there to say the least

05:47

it's very rare that a bit flip from an

05:49

ionized particle would affect something

05:50

like a computer or a Nintendo 64 in a

05:53

visually observable manner especially

05:56

with something like a sudden upw warp

05:58

that sticks out like a sore thumb there

06:01

have been single event upsets in history

06:03

where the cosmic ray theory is plausible

06:06

given the

06:07

circumstances but in the case of the TTC

06:09

upw warp it's a bit of a leap in logic

06:12

to assume that over a potential answer

06:15

found in game or even a hardware

06:18

malfunction pan and coak himself noted

06:21

how outlandish he found the theory

06:24

regardless no one was able to recreate

06:26

the exact upw warp even as the 1000

06:29

Bounty garnered more outside attention

06:32

the cause behind it remained a mystery

06:35

years passed with no leads on the TTC

06:38

upwarp solving this mystery was put on

06:41

the back burner as tassor and the ABC

06:43

crew focused on other projects cosmic

06:46

rays remained a mere hypothesis and an

06:49

unlikely one at that no sm64 expert 100%

06:54

bought into that theory and on February

06:56

21st 2018 DotA bag left a comment on

07:00

panin's bit flip comparison video that

07:03

made cosmic rays seem all the more

07:05

doubtful for what it's worth I often had

07:08

to tilt my cartridge weird ways in order

07:11

to get the game to start it seemed that

07:13

I had it all the way pressed down

07:15

sometimes it wouldn't start but if I

07:17

pulled up on one side ever so slightly

07:20

it would start just fine so if you think

07:23

that's a possible factor it's worth

07:25

considering that

07:26

fact yeah I believe it is is worth

07:30

strongly considering a faulty cartridge

07:32

and console as a potential cause and

07:35

that's what sm64 Tasser danebo did soon

07:39

after danne bought DOTA teags Nintendo

07:42

64 and Mario 64 cartridge the next month

07:46

he' performed some Hardware tests and

07:47

messed around with it it was in a

07:50

somewhat faulty condition but after

07:52

running a few tests on the N64 nothing

07:55

notable popped up and he was unable to

07:57

recreate the upw warp a cartridge tilt

07:59

would often lead to messed up animations

08:01

audio and game crashes here I use a

08:04

setup

08:06

where what dirty or loose pin

08:09

connections between the cartridge and

08:11

the console are a more likely culprit

08:14

though as somewhat recent anomalies were

08:16

likely caused by such a faulty

08:18

connection or cart slap which may lead

08:20

to some sudden shifts in code here's

08:23

some examples on August 1st 2018 a video

08:27

from a Japanese Runner a Ami was posted

08:30

on YouTube by another Japanese Runner

08:32

Aki we can see that 17 minutes deep into

08:35

a 70 star Speed Run Aogami falls off the

08:39

cool cool Mountain slide during the

08:40

penguin race upset he hits his console

08:44

in

08:47

frustration upon regaining his composure

08:50

he jumps back into the painting except

08:53

it didn't take him back to cool cool

08:55

Mountain but

08:57

instead Big Boo's haunt

09:02

I bet you've never seen that happen

09:04

before I'd say this is a very strong

09:08

example of a cart slap another anomaly

09:11

happened much more recently on January

09:14

21st

09:15

20124 at the start of a 16st star

09:18

attempt speedrunner xandre experienced a

09:20

very glitchy Sky effect out of the blue

09:23

like literally where's the blue sky this

09:26

persisted until he entered the castle

09:29

the character animations in audio were

09:31

fine and the Glitchy Sky effect did not

09:34

happen in the other levels when xandre

09:37

lost the Run he went back outside the

09:40

castle to see if the sky was still

09:41

messed up it was back to normal how

09:45

strange xandre would also go on record

09:48

to say that his N64 was particularly

09:51

sensitive and susceptible to loose cart

09:53

connections and even cart tilts it's

09:55

worth noting that cartridge tilts

09:57

themselves are not known to replicate up

09:59

warps or flip bits but it's more

10:02

plausible that a cart slap bad pin

10:04

connections or even some other memory

10:06

error was responsible for the Tik Tock

10:08

Clock upw warp more likely than cosmic

10:12

rays it's entirely possible that no bits

10:15

were flipped at all because neither cart

10:17

tilts nor slaps flip bits again without

10:22

knowing the exact as placement of

10:23

Mario's height in the DOTA teabag clip

10:25

we have no confirmation that a bit flip

10:28

even happened at all

10:29

especially when you consider the

10:31

condition of tags carton N64 the proof

10:34

of concept video not matching exactly

10:37

and the opinion of Experts of Mario 64

10:39

and the N64 Hardware but let's humor

10:43

that possibility for a second what if a

10:45

bit actually did flip in memory to cause

10:48

the upw warp surely then it has to be a

10:51

cosmic ray right well not really in fact

10:57

another phenomenon occurred in tick tock

11:00

clock again in May 2020 speedrunner dup

11:05

doome was practicing Tik Tock Clock

11:07

specifically the 100 Coin Star when

11:10

suddenly one of the moving bars from

11:12

above teleported downwards from where

11:14

it's supposed to be not only that but

11:17

throughout the VOD even during an actual

11:19

speedrun attempt there would be some

11:21

reoccurring graphical glitches with

11:23

Mario's Shadow and Tik Tock Clock after

11:26

dup doome uploaded the clip and stream

11:28

VOD to YouTube sm64 expert quate began

11:32

to investigate and wrote up a Google doc

11:34

trying to make sense of everything the

11:36

sm64 tassin community investigated dup

11:39

Do's footage and managed to recreate the

11:41

moving bar warp by flipping one specific

11:44

bit they even did the same for one of

11:46

the weird onef frame extended Shadow

11:48

glitches showing that bit flips were a

11:51

likely cause for some of the weird

11:52

glitches on dup's

11:54

N64 but don't get it twisted this does

11:58

not mean that it was was a single event

11:59

upset caused by cosmic rays especially

12:03

if multiple bits may have been flipping

12:05

in fact this was not the only recorded

12:08

time dup doome saw that same moving bar

12:10

down warp for no apparent reason it

12:13

happened again clearly this had to be a

12:17

deeper hardware error of some kind

12:19

causing these reoccurring glitches

12:21

taking into account that dum dones N64

12:24

appeared to have frequent bit flip

12:26

errors including two separate instances

12:28

of the moving bar down warping there is

12:30

significantly more evidence pointing

12:32

towards a malfunctioning memory cache to

12:35

have caused all those glitches that or

12:37

some other Hardware related error is far

12:40

more likely of a theory than cosmic rays

12:43

hi there the editor here if we were to

12:45

still humor the bit flip Theory there is

12:47

a possibility that it could be some

12:49

other type of interference for instance

12:52

electromagnetic interference something

12:54

as common as a power surge May

12:56

potentially be to blame for the causes

12:58

of bit flips and if you listen to teabag

13:01

surroundings during the race there is a

13:03

lot of construction going

13:05

[Music]

13:09

on what the if it was that perhaps

13:13

someone could do something to recreate

13:15

it though I will admit even when trying

13:17

to use a high-powered food processor

13:19

next to the N64 to get something to

13:23

happen nothing did there have even been

13:26

recent mysterious down warps that were

13:29

probably not caused by a bit flip on

13:32

December 8th 2022 Peruvian speedrunner

13:36

ian1 1243 experienced a strange down

13:40

warp in Bowser in the fire sea during a

13:42

run this down warp was not caused by any

13:45

currently documented methods and is

13:47

still considered an unsolved mystery but

13:49

we know for a fact that it wasn't a bit

13:51

flip because the vertical displacement

13:54

is estimated to have been around 900

13:56

units bits in memory represent

13:58

exponential powers of two when a bit is

14:01

flipped it adds or subtracts a value

14:04

representing a clean power of two to a

14:06

bite in memory the closest power of 2 to

14:09

900 is

14:11

1,24 but according to the experts Mario

14:14

doesn't seem to be displaced by that

14:16

much from the sudden down warp making a

14:18

bit flip highly

14:20

unlikely so if sm64 experts were able to

14:24

come up with more realistic theories for

14:26

the TTC upwarp based on DOTA teabags

14:29

faulty Hardware other similar anomalies

14:32

and their own understanding of the game

14:34

and the N64 architecture why did the

14:37

cosmic ray Theory suddenly spread across

14:40

the internet as if it actually happened

14:43

the answer is bad gaming journalism on

14:47

September 16th 2020 an article covering

14:50

DOTA teabags Tik Tock Clock upw warp

14:52

titled how an ionizing particle from

14:55

outer space helped a Mario speedrunner

14:57

save time was published on the gamer

15:00

based on the gamer's previous video

15:02

coverage of speedruns you know you're in

15:04

for a real treat a gamer with a tag of

15:07

funilla sm64 Dives jumps and bursts

15:10

through multiple levels as he makes

15:12

seemingly impossible jumps

15:18

objection that's why we've compiled a

15:20

list of 10 video game speedruns that

15:22

will never be

15:26

beaten anyways the article gives a recap

15:29

of the upw warp what makes it different

15:31

from a normal upwarp and the $1,000

15:33

Bounty from pan and coic 12 and then

15:37

makes the Bold claim that the upw warp

15:40

was certainly caused by an ionizing

15:42

particle citing pan and coic 12 and his

15:46

comparison video claiming it was 100%

15:49

confirmed that it was a bit flip the

15:52

author States it with so much confidence

15:54

that it is 100% confirmed that they

15:57

ignored the part in the video

15:58

description where it states that the

16:00

glitch is not solved and the idea of a

16:03

cosmic ray is a bit far-fetched and thus

16:06

began a classic game of telephone on

16:10

February 7th 2021 a tweet containing an

16:13

excerpt from the gamer article went

16:15

viral getting 32,000 likes and over

16:18

5,000 retweets bringing a lot of

16:20

attention to not only the TTC upw warp

16:23

once again but now the cosmic ray Theory

16:26

as well this unlik likely Theory began

16:29

to spread across the internet as if it

16:31

was a proven fact much to the Chagrin of

16:34

many members of the speedrun community

16:36

who had more context than the general

16:38

public did later that week news articles

16:41

from various gaming and pop culture

16:43

Publications began to post articles

16:45

about the TTC upw warp caused by cosmic

16:47

rays Theory many of them regurgitating

16:50

info from the gamer article typos

16:52

included this topic became even more

16:55

widespread on August 31st 2021 when the

16:58

popular educational YouTube channel

17:01

veritasium published the universe is

17:03

hostile to computers a video that

17:06

discusses cosmic rays and how ionized

17:09

particles from said cosmic rays can

17:12

affect computers by flipping bits it has

17:15

20 million views for the most part it is

17:19

a very well-made and well researched

17:21

video citing various academic journals

17:24

anecdotes of real world events and the

17:27

gamer uh-oh

17:29

yeah there's a short minute and a half

17:31

segment about the Tik Tock Clock upw

17:33

warp using the gamer article and panic

17:35

cook 12's proof of concept video as an

17:38

example of a bit flip definitely

17:41

happening thanks to a cosmic ray as you

17:44

could imagine with it being featured in

17:46

such a popular video it spread around

17:49

the internet like a wildfire again more

17:53

news articles covering the TTC upwarp

17:55

were then published including one from

17:58

PC gamer that erroneously claims that

18:00

pan andoa came out with proof 6 years